Kharkiv is one of the largest cities in Ukraine, and also it’s the regional center of the Kharkiv region. Kharkiv is founded in 1654. The population is about 1.5 million people. (1446.5 thousand people on 01.01.2011).
Kharkiv is located in north-eastern part of Ukraine on the border of two landscape zones - forest-steppe and steppe - near the confluence of the rivers Lopan, Uda, and Kharkiv. Its territory is a hilly plain - more than half the total area of the city is located on the sites altitude of 100 m above sea level. Kharkiv rivers and their tributaries are shallow and not navigable.
Kharkov stretches from north to south at 24 km from east to west at 25 km, occupying an area of about 306 square km. It has more than 2,500 pamphlets, streets, lanes and squares.
The climate in Kharkov is moderately continental. In winter, the weather is changeable: frosts alternate with the thaw. The average annual temperature is +7,5 º C. The coldest month is January: -7 º C, but it is -15 and even -30 º C. Summer is hot, the hottest month is July, average temperature +21 º C. In June and July, heaviest precipitation is falls, but, despite this summer in Kharkov is very comfortable: its beautiful parks, gardens, fountains, lots of outdoor cafes.
The modern city is divided into 9 administrative districts: Dzerzhinskiy, Octyaberskiy, Kievskiy, Kominternovskiy, Leninskiy, Moscowskiy, Ordzhonikidzeskiy, Frunzeskiy, Chervonozavodskiy. Different parts of the city, mostly in the suburbs, are also retained the historical and informal names (for example, Alekseyevka, Pavlovo Pole, Pomerki, Sokolniki, Saltovka, Zhuravlevka, Ivanovka, Honcharivka, Luysaya Gora, Kholodnaya Gora and others).
Due to its convenient geographical position, Kharkiv for centuries expanded its economic strength and developed a system of transport communications. Today it is a very major transportation hub: the important railway lines and highways leading to the Donbass, the Crimea, the Caucasus, to the ports of the Black, Azov and Baltic seas, many of the largest industrial centers are located outside of Ukraine. The highways pass through the Kharkiv M-03 (Kyiv - Kharkiv - Dolzhanskiy), M-26 (Kharkiv - Simferopol - Sevastopol), M-27 (Kharkov - Scherbakovka).
Kharkiv is a large industrial center of Ukraine. The basis of the productive capacity of the enterprise is high-tech industries: power engineering, electrical engineering, transport and agriculture engineering, instrumentation, electronics, aerospace. Production of many of Kharkiv enterprises is known on the world market, including high technology, such as modern tanks, aircraft and turbines.
Kharkov is the second largest in Ukraine on scientific and educational potential. In an average year over 33 thousand experts are being prepared, which ensures a high level of manpower in the region. It is the first time in Kharkov in Europe the atom was split, the nature of superconductivity was studied, the largest radio telescope was created, a framework of the theory of oscillations in the plasma, the scattering of slow neutrons in crystals were developed,. There were established many scientific schools. The works of L. Landau, N. Barabashova, A. Walter, A. Palladin are received International recognition.
Kharkiv is a city with rich cultural traditions. There are 6 major theaters: the Academic Opera and Ballet Theatre of N. Lysenko, the Ukrainian Drama Theatre of T. Shevchenko, the Russian Drama Theatre of A. S. Pushkin, the Theater of Musical Comedy, the Theatre for Children and Youth, the puppet theater. In addition, there are a lot of theater groups, theaters studios and amateur theaters. Kharkov boasts a large number of museums, concert halls (including the Hall of Organ and Chamber Music). The city has a lot of libraries. There are more than 6.5 million books and periodicals in funds of the State Scientific Library of Korolenko, among which are rare and unique. The Kharkov regional philharmonic society holds Great job of organizing concerts and promotion of musical art. The circus, zoo, dolphin are popular among residents and visitors alike enjoy.
Kharkiv is sports city. There are all conditions for sports and education of future masters and champions. There are 19 stadiums, 850 sports fields, 363 gyms, 19 pools, 40 tennis courts, and the golf club. Kharkov is a proud football team «Metalist», and the volleyball team «Lokomotiv». The names of many of Kharkovites forever inscribed in the history of the world of sports. This is a double Olympic champion Rustam Sharipov (gymnastics), Ludmila Dzhigalova (athletics), Yuri Poyarkov (volleyball), Olympic champions Maria Gorohovskaya (gymnastics), Igor Fisherman (weightlifting), Basil Matushevich, Yuri Vengerovsky (volleyball), Alex Barkalov (water polo), Igor Tselovalnikov, Vladimir Movchan (cycling), Yana Klochkova (swimming).
The Ukrainian and Russian culture are equally near and dear for Kharkovites. This is a historical accident: more than three centuries ago this land was inhabited by immigrants from Russia and the Right-Bank Ukraine. Official language of the country is Ukrainian, but the mother tongue of most residents of Kharkov are Russian, and Ukrainian, so they are still used in everyday life.
Kharkiv is a cosmopolitan city: Ukrainian and Russian, Poles and Jews, Germans, Armenians, Bulgarians, Tatars, Belarusians and the Greeks, Gypsies, and Latvians, representatives of other nations in Europe and Asia are lived here since ancient times. Today in the town, there are 50 national-cultural associations, acting Catholic and Protestant churches, synagogues, mosques, houses of worship of other faiths, there are 15 schools with in-depth study of national cultures. The uniqueness of Kharkov is that throughout its history there was not a single major clashes between the residents on national, racial or religious grounds. A traditional hospitality to the guests, wherever they came features Residents of the city.
Coming here you will find sincere and warm welcome, see the town that will amaze you with a variety of architectural styles, traditions and ideas, and have a good rest.
Seven Wonders of the Kharkiv
Seven Wonders of Kharkiv are the seven historic and cultural monuments, which were chosen in the contest «Seven Wonders of Kharkiv» in July 2008.
1. The Monument to Taras Shevchenko
Monument to Taras Shevchenko was erected in 1935 at the entrance to the garden of the same name. It’s considered the best among more than 250 monuments to Taras Shevchenko in the world. It took more than a year to create a work of art. 16.5-meter-high monument is a bronze statue of Shevchenko (5.5 meters), standing on a round pedestal of natural silicate. The statue is surrounded by 16 smaller pedestals with statues made of bronze, as those characters from the history of Ukraine and the heroes of Taras Shevchenko are selected.
2. The Fountain «Mirror stream»
The Fountain «Mirror stream» is refers to the most outstanding architectural structures of Kharkiv and it is one of its symbol. It’s under the UNESCO protection. It’s located on Sumskaia Street, in the square opposite the Opera House.
It was built in 1947 to commemorate the Victory of the Soviet people in Second World War.
It’s made in the form arbors, from under which a jet of water coming down the mirror. Today it is spread around the picturesque square. Before the fountain beautiful flower beds are broken, and behind it a romantic pond of irregular shape is lies.
Mirror Stream is one of the favorite places for meetings and recreation of Kharkovites.
3. Pokrovsky Cathedral of Kharkiv Pokrovsky Monastery
A few buildings are located at the monastery: St. Basil's Cathedral, Temple Ozeryanskoy Mother of God, Kharkiv episcopal residence and seminary. It was founded by Cossacks, who hailed it in 1689 as part of the fortifications. In the 18 century Pokrovsky Cathedral premises used for training students of the Kharkiv College, where in 1759-1764 it taught the outstanding Ukrainian teacher, poet and philosopher Grigory Skovoroda. Currently, St. Basil's Cathedral is the oldest stone monument of architecture of national significance in Kharkiv.
4. Blagoveshenskiy Cathedral
This temple is a brilliant representative of neo-Byzantine style of architecture, with a 80-meter bell tower, it was built between 1889 and 1901 years of the project local of architect Michael Lovtsov. It’s able to accommodate 4,000 people. It’s the cathedral of Kharkov diocese of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate). The Annunciation Cathedral buried Patriarch Athanasius III and several holy bishops.
5. Yspenskiy Cathedral
The cathedral stands on the University hill on the riverbank Lopan and visible from anywhere in the city center. The bell tower, made in the neoclassical style, was built in 1820-1830 years, and the height of the building reaches 90 meters. Prior to the XXI century the cathedral was the tallest building in the city. After restoration in 1980 it opened House of Organ and Chamber Music. At the site of the altar an organ made in Czechoslovakia.
6. Derzhprom (House of State Industry)
Derzhprom is the first high-rise reinforced concrete skeleton construction in the Soviet Union. The building was designed by architects S. Serafimov, S. Kravtsov, M. Felgert. Huge, even by modern standards, a multi-storey frame structure made of concrete was built in only a short time: from 1925 to 1928, comprising 4,500 window openings that require 17 hectares of glass. The various administrative agencies are located in a building Gosprom.
7. Residential house with a spire
Residential house with a spire is a representative of the style «Stalinskiy empire», its located on Constitution Square. It’s dominated by high-altitude area and occupies an entire block. Height is 7-11 floors. It’s designed by the P. I. Areshkin progect in 1954.
Out of competition: the most important miracle, a symbol of Kharkiv is Svobody Square
It`s unique architectural ensemble is known far beyond Ukraine. Area and the buildings around it were built in the late 1920's - early 1930's the twentieth century. This period was a turning point for urban Kharkiv.
Svobody Square is one of the largest in the world (almost 12 acres). The unusual shape, resembling a flask makes it look more impressive.
It`s spatially divided into rectangular portion facing the Sumskaya Street, and a rounded, adjacent to the main Lenins avenue of the center of which a park. The length of the area is 750 m, the width of the rectangular side is 130 m, the diameter of a circle is 350 m. On the north side adjacent to it hotel «Kharkiv» and office buildings are attending to it, the east (Sumskaya Street side) is the building of the Kharkiv Regional State Administration. Along the south side of the Palace of Youth and garden named after Taras Shevchenko are located. In a circular of the Liberty Square three main buildings are located: Derzhprom, Kharkiv National University of V. N. Karazin and Military University (now the Education Building KNU V. N. Karazin).